Beothuk not extinct

Steve Bartlett
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Mi'kmaq chief cites DNA results as evidence

The statue Spirit of the Beothuk stands overlooking the site where the Beothuk once made their home in Boyd’s Cove. DNA testing is showing a link between the Beothuk and other peoples.

Science is proving something Mi’sel Joe has always known — European settlers did not drive the Beothuk to extinction.

“Not by a long shot,” says the chief of the Miawpukek First Nation in Conne River.  

“They may have gotten to a point where they couldn’t find any more when they were looking, but that’s not to say they were all gone, and DNA will prove that.” In fact, Joe says it already has. “I know of DNA testing that has been done ... that shows there is a link between our people (the Mi’kmaq) and the Beothuk people,” he says, adding that’s happened in the past six months or so.

The Beothuk had lived in Newfoundland for centuries when European settlers and fishermen started arriving in the 16th century.

As the European presence spread, the Beothuk dwindled to the point where the last known Beothuk, Shanawdithit, died in St. John’s in 1829.

Over the years, a consensus has been that Europeans drove the Beothuk to extinction.  

But Joe says such sentiment “pisses me off … because it’s not accurate.”

He says Mi’kmaq oral history recounts that there were marriages between the Beothuk and his people, and also that the Mi’kmaq helped some Beothuk escape European pressure by helping them reach continental North America.

He remembers his grandfather talking about the Beothuk, and says there was always a hushed tone when he did.

“Among all of us, there is Beothuk blood somewhere in our genes, through the intermarriage that took place,” Joe says. “Not only through Conne River, but particularly on the west coast of Newfoundland.”

DNA testing on the remains of Beothuk people has been going on for years.

In 2009, the central Newfoundland-based Beothuk Institute said there were plans to test the remains of two Beothuks and then compare the samples with the DNA of members of modern native groups, including the Mi’kmaq.

And in 2010, a team of geneticists from Iceland and Spain announced they had discovered a strain of DNA in a small group of Icelanders which may represent the genetic survival of the Beothuk.

The theory was that the Vikings captured a female Beothuk — which the Norse called skraelings — and brought her to Iceland.

She is then thought to have had children and her lineage survives in the Icelanders who were tested.

Teresa Greene is the chairwoman of the Beothuk Institute.

“It kind of makes sense, but I don’t know if there is any scientific proof,” she says of the possible Beothuk-Mi’kmaq connection. “It does really make sense because they were around here at the same time, so why wouldn’t they (connect)?”

Greene says the institute has run out of funding to continue the DNA work, but she expects it will apply for more.

“It’s very expensive work,” she says, adding they appreciate the public donations for this work made at the Beothuk Interpretation Centre in Boyd’s Cove.

Joe notes there have been conversations in Conne River about conducting DNA testing themselves.

“We’ve talked a couple of times about doing that, and we’ll get to that,” he says.

Organizations: Miawpukek First Nation, Beothuk Institute, DNA of members Vikings Beothuk Interpretation Centre

Geographic location: Conne River, Newfoundland, Iceland North America Spain

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Recent comments

  • White Hair
    July 26, 2014 - 19:58

    Here is an excerpt of the physical description of the Beothuk as recorded by Albert Gatschet 1885: To Mr. Howley [James Patrick Howley] he [Mr. Lloyd] gave the following picture of their exterior (Lloyd, v., p. 226)" "The Beothuks were a much finer and handsomer race than the Micmacs, having more regular features and aquiline [also called the Hook Nose or Roman Nose], nor were they so dark in the skin. They were of middle stature and a very active build" (Gatschet 1885:412) [Reference: Gatschet, Albert A. 1885. "The Beothuk Indians"in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, January, Vol. XXIL, Part I, No. 117). It is interesting to note, however coincidental, the shared similarities in features noted for the Beothuk Indians noted above, and those recorded for John Barrington, noted Mi'kmaq-Beo guide (b. 1825 Le Cornu "The Horn"-Conne River, FB), resident of Indian Cove (Pike Place-Johnnie Martin's Land) & Black Duck Brook (adjacent to Indian Cove), Belle Chute, Rattling Brook, PHR, PB. References to the physical features or physiognomy of John Barrington as recorded by James Patrick Howley in his geological survey fieldwork notes are as follows: 1.) Geological Survey of Newfoundland Fieldbook (1868) (2.002.001), Howley Family Paper Collection, 262 Archives & Manuscript Collection, MUN QEII (; and 2.) J. P. Howley's Forty-Two Years of Reminiscences In and About Newfoundland, 1868-1880 (Kirwin, O'Flaherty & Hollett eds., English language Research Centre, MUN Department of English, DAI-Digital Archives Initiative: (Howley, J.P., 37). The most notable distinguishing features from the former reference are "...not near so dark featured as Joe [Bernard], has long slightly aquiline nose and on the whole is not bad looking......." (p. 35), while those from the latter are: "...His features were rather handsome with most beautiful dark brown eyes. He was a lithe active fellow with loose limbs and I noticed his hands were as delicate as a lady's....". While critics and/or sceptics may question or chide the shared similarities in features noted for John Barrington above with those recorded for the now exticnt Beothuk there are several overarching points of convergence which clusters John Barrington closer the Beothuk kin group as a whole, notably: 1.) delicate, pronounced or fine features; 2.) long slightly aquiline nose; and 3.) ligher skin complexion significantly lighter in hue to the neighbouring Newfoundland Mi'kmaq (Ktaqmkukewaq) kin group with whom he sometimes identified with or as, depending on the circumstances. I will leave the reader with the freedom of drawing their onw conclusions in light of the available evidence about who they think John Barrington was. But the existing and emerging evidence (e.g., Re Indian Pond, Piper's Hole, PN, the historical narrative "Indian Scrape", 1827 John family encounter with 9 Beothuk surviviors 14 miles upriver on the western side of Long Harbour River, FB , John family history as recorded through oral traditions confirming a Beothuk or Red Indian connection for this family, pointing to a connection to Piper's Hole, emerging archaeological evidence, ....) however controversial or conspiratorial, seems to point a distant Red Indian connection going back 6-7 Gens for the Barrington family of Conne River, FB-Indian Cove, Piper's Hole, PB..

  • White Hair
    July 26, 2014 - 19:08

    For further details on the encounter between Peter John Sr. and Lewis John (s/o former), ca. 1827 and a small band of Beothuk survivors (9), 14 miles upriver on the western side of Long Harbour River (Pijipukwek), FB the reader is directed to Farley Mowat's book The Bay of Spirits,: A Love Story (2006) pp. 171-2 (referenced on-line through Google Books). Note that a similar account is given in Doug Jackson & Gerald Penney's (1993) book "On the Country: The Micmac of Newfoundland" The reader can infer infer his/her own conclusions based on the evidence of the eye-witness account. My own questions with regard to the incident are: 1.) is it a conincidence that the eye-witness report occurred within the traditional family hunting territory of the John family family of Conne River, FB-Piper's Hole, PB, then extending north from Long Harbour River to John Pond (Sambadista(sic.), Mc Sa'npatistek), Terra Nova southeastwards to the Tolt and Piper's Hole, a hunting territory (Eastern Side of the Tolt) that was later taken by Louis John (s/o Peter John Jr, (of Peter John Sr. & Mary Brazil) and Ellen Hall/Hann, and John Barrington (b. 1825 Le Cornu "The Horn"-Conne River, FB-Indian Cove, Belle Chute, Rattling Brook, Piper's Hole River, PB); and 2.) was it a coincidence that the place name or toponym Red Indian Pond denoting an early nineteeth century Beothuk sanctuary or enclave and the incident at Indian (Dirty) Scrape, Shoprock (Huskie Outlook) all occurred within the boundaries and domains of the John (Baptiste) family hunting territory? I defer the answers to these questions, often dismissed as chance coincidence by sceptics and/or critics, to the reader to draw their own conclusions based on interpretation and opinion of the evidence provided therewithin.

  • White Hair
    July 14, 2014 - 05:51

    However controversial and debatable the observational and/or circumstantial evidence alluding to a distant Red Indian connection for the old Indian or French Indian families from Piper's Hole River, PB, may be, depending on the relative perceptions of the reader, it seems to add weight or cluster closer to the mounting evidence from other areas of research, notably: 1.) unpublished and published oral tradition accounts, such as the historical narrative Indian Scrape (Newfoundland Quarterly 1914), which many academics or researchers have diminished to the pejorative status of a story, fable or myth. The role of John Barrington to this splinter group of Beo survivors has been seriously called into question, and the statement “Joe [John] fled toward Piper’s Hole for the Beothuk were still in that part of the country though very few in numbers” raises the hitherto unanswered questions: “How did John Barrington know about the incident at Indian Scrape? How did he know that John Mitchell was the accused or assailant in the crime? Why would he identify John Mitchell as a perpetrator of the crime giving his name and ethnic origin “Old John Mitchell, a Micmac Indian, was on his way from Conne to Piper’s Hole, and as this was nearly a century ago,….”? Did John Barrington have a hidden agenda or “axe-to-grind” against Old John Mitchell? Why did he wait until he was 87 years old to tell the story? Did he wait to distance himself in both space and time, out of respect for the life and spirit of Old John Mitchell, who presumably passed away almost 50 years previous, and to distance himself from the community of Conne River and the Newfoundland Mi’kmaq (Ktaqmkukewaq), as he was an old man now, who lived his life in full, and from his perspective had nothing to lose by stepping forward and telling the truth, nothing but redemption, atonement and catharsis? Did he seek anonymity to protect his identity among NL Mi’kmaq, who may have viewed his actions as traitorous, deceptive and defective, in other words a traitor and deserter among the collective, extended kin-group, going against the welfare and well-being of the group as a whole, if you will? the historical incident or event (ca. 1809-1819) that occurred at Shoprock (Huskie Outlook), Indian (Dirty) Scrape, Piper’s Hole, PB, where the relationship of neither John Mitchell (NL Mc-Mont Saqamaw or Chief) to the Beo kin group then hiding out at Red Indian Pond, PHR, PB, nor the relationship of John Barrington (of same said place), R.S. Dahl’s principal guide and informant who narrated the historical event, have been either disambiguated or referenced with any degree of certainty due to the many unanswered questions surrounding the event and the lack of historical-genealogical records for the groups and/or families in question-nor may they ever be disambiguated given the limits of current scientific investigation. However, the fact remains, however controversial and debatable, as the sequence of events narrated in the historical event implies, that John Barrington (b. ca. 1825, Con [sic.] River) received the information from a firsthand eyewitness, participant or observer to the event, probably through James John or Peter John Sr., who were presumed to be present that day at this location, a Beothuk survivor such as a female captive from the splinter group who was taken back to Conne River by John Mitchell and incorporated or assimilated into the Mc-Mont community there, or the most plausible scenario, a Beothuk survivor from the kin group who followed John Mitchell from Goose Pond (Tqali’j Qospem) to Indian Scrape, as the narrative directly implies. It is obvious from the narrative that a Beothuk scout or guide was sent out from the Red Indian Pond group to follow John Mitchell on his overland journey from Conne River, en route via Goose Pond onwards to Indian Scrape. It is also obvious that the Beothuk warrior-headman who confronted John Mitchell was not the man following him, but was waiting for him at said location. Given his status as a Hereditary Chief of the NL Mc, with a public image and reputation to uphold, it is highly unlikely and doubtful that John Mitchell would have ever divulged the secret of the murder to fellow NL Mc headmen or competing clan factions within the community of Conne River, especially those who were or may have been perceived as potential rivals vying for power to inherit his title. Such a move would have been both deleteriously self-defeating, bordering on career sabotage or suicide, and potentially dangerous as a self-implicating criminal act, given the enactment and publication of Governor Duckworth’s proclamation at the time and the Beothuk Institute’s later proclamations forbidding any act of violence, harassment, injury, or death incurred against the then endangered Red Indians, with resulting criminal punishment under full extent of the law. This probably explains why John Barrington waited until he was around 87 years of age to divulge the secret to Richard S. Dahl, at a point in his life and career where such a move would not endanger his livelihood, years after John Mitchell Sr. had passed away (ca. 1865-1870?), and long after (1868-1914: 46 years) he had severed formal ties with Conne River when he emigrated from there (ca. 1868-9) along with his wife Mary Hawco (Also) to Black Duck Brook, Rattling Brook, Indian Cove (Brown’s Island, or Pike Place), PHR, PB, following his tenure as a licensed guide with the geological survey of the PHR-BR watershed areas (1868); 2.) the elusive and enigmatic origin of the place name or toponym Red Indian Pond in the Piper’s Hole watershed area, which stands out on topographic maps, outside the domain proper or sphere of influence of the known traditional hunting domain of the Red Indian people, namely Red Indian Lake, Exploits River, NDB, which cannot be accurately dated or referenced because there are no official records pointing to its true origin, date of derivation and cataloguing, and source of information, that is an informant; 3) feelings of attachment or affinity among some Barrington descendants who question or rather refute the credibility of the oral tradition of how John Barrington came about getting his name. For example, many elders interviewed categorically denied the validity of the story stating that it was “a crock of lies” or “they made it all up, I don’t believe it for a minute” (Alphonsus Barrington, pers. comm., St. John’s, 2005); and 4.) the existence of rare medical conditions, notably PHS-CHHS, encoded by a Gli3 frameshift mutation, attested in some descendants from the PHR group (Barringtons & Johns excluded), that also encodes polydactyly as attested in contemporary descendants of Santu (Paul) Toney, with a known connection to Kop. As a disclaimer, so as not to redact any previous research position on the role of Gli3 cluster syndromes (e.g., PHS, CHHS) attested in living descendants from this extended kin group, such a mutation in all probability if it ever was introduced into a Beo-Mc kin group from Red Indian Pond, PHR, PB, came from WE captives, kidnapees or shipwreck survivors, and was never attested in pre-contact and early contact Beo or Mc kin groups. If such a mutation were present in the founding Beringian-Siberian population and later Paleo-Indian and Maritime Archaic Indian groups it would have a higher frequency distribution among living Native American descendants throughout North-Central-South American, but the fact is that it is conspicuously absent from these groups, reinforcing the speculation that it was never a part of the founder group, but was perhaps acquired among isolated local kin groups through WE miscegenation. To summarize, I would have to say that after years of conducting extensive ethnographic research in the area that there is indeed a Red Indian connection for some families from the PHR, PB area, notably Pike, Martin, Bernard, John and Barrington, going back 5-7 Gens for different families. I would also have to say that the published oral tradition narrative “The Legend of Piper’s Hole”, as elicited from Mrs. John Barrington of Indian Cove, Pike Place, PHR, PB, is nothing more than a variant of Johnnie Martin’s oral family history account of how the Pikes and Martins became tangled up, and tangentially a corruption of an earlier historical account describing the origin of the Pike patriline of Upper PB-TB South from 2 French (Breton or Basque) deserters during Father Beaudoin’s War (1696-7). Essentially, the Legend of Piper’s Hole or “Piker’s Hole” as older Pikes from there who resettled in TB South called it, is nothing more than a truncated version of a much larger and more complicated family history of the Pike family from the PH watershed area, one of the earliest WE settler families who colonized the area. The fact is that the role of the Pike family in shaping the history of Piper’s Hole has been not only forgotten but is currently being censored in the public domain. My question is why is our family being “erased from history” and why are we excluded from the discussion? As an endnote I will not redact my previous research position on a distant Beo connection for families from this area. If and only when a deep clade, autosomal SNP has been done between the Barrington and Pike families, by an independent international genetics research team and our family has been tested for Gli3 mutation, and a distant relationship can be ruled out beyond a reasonable doubt pointing to any shared ancestry between both groups, that rules out the similarities in features for older members of the Barrington-Pike group from PHR, PB, will I even consider making any revisions. I will concede to yielding to a formal unpublished apology if and/only if certain conditions are met, namely: a delegated representative from the NL Mi'kmaq acknoweldges the role of some of the ancient NL Mi'kmaq in the partial demise or depopulation of the Beothuk and the Newfoundland Wolf through overtrapping; an archaeolgical survey of Red Indian Pond is assured in writing with consulation with family members; memorials for Tom June, John August and Indian Scrape are committed through funding assurance in writing; and a comparative deep-clade SNP DNA medical study is committed through MUN Genetics for future gene mapping and therapy. Only when these conditions are met and a genetic connection between the Pike-Barrington family has been categorically ruled out beyond a reasonable doubt, pointing to a zero per cent chance of sharing a shared most recent common ancestor in 6-7, by an independent international eam of molecular geneticists, will I consider a redaction and revision of existing research proposals and positions.

  • White Hair
    July 14, 2014 - 05:11

    When one compares the physical characteristics or physiognomy of John Barrington (1825-1928) as recorded by James Patrick Howley at Piper’s Hole-Black River, PB (1868) to the physical description of the Beothuk recorded by J.P. Howley during his ethnological fieldwork interview of John Peyton Sr. at the end of the nineteenth century, one can see several overarching or converging points which cluster John Barrington Sr. towards the Pi’tawkewaq (Beothuk). JP Howley’s (description of John Barrington follows: “The two Indians who were encamped about a mile out in the woods came as soon as they heard we were come. Joe Bernard the eldest of them is a man about 35 years old. Broad shouldered, thickset and very dark, about 5 ft. 8 in. high. Has thick Black hair, large beard and moustache, also black, broad features, swarthy & brown is a thoroughbred Indian in every respect. John Barrington the other is a thin wiry fellow about 24 years old black hair but no hair whatever about his face, is not near so dark featured as Joe, has long slightly aquiline nose, and on the whole is not bad looking….” (Howley Fieldnotes 1968, 34-5). Compare this to a similar but slightly variant account of John Barrington recorded by Howley in his reminiscences diary notes: “…Joe Bernard, the older man, was about 35 years of age, a thick-set swarthy individual possessing a heavy beard and moustache, which is unusual with Indians. John Barrington the other was a much younger man about 24 years of age, nearly 6 ft., clean face with no hair whatever about it except a great crop on his head which like Joes was jet black. John being but a half-breed was not nearly so dark as Joe. His features were rather handsome with most beautiful dark brown eyes. He was a lithe active fellow with loose limbs and I noticed his hands were as delicate as a lady’s…. (Howley, Reminiscences of forty-two years of exploration in and about Newfoundland 1868-1880, p. 37). When we compare both physical descriptions of John Barrington to the Beothuk we can identify numerous typological similarities in cranio-facial features. The following extract recorded and published by Gatschet (1885:412) citing Lloyd (v, 226), as elicited presumably from John Peyton Sr. of Exploits, NDB: “To Mr. Howley he [Lloyd] gives the following picture of the exterior [physiognomy] The Beothucks were a much finer and handsomer race than the Micmacs, having more regular features and aquiline noses; nor were dark in the skin. They were of middle stature and, and a very lithe active build” (Gatschet 1885, 412) [The Beothuk Indians, in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 22 (120): 408-424]. As the eyewitness account physical descriptions above confirm, the convergent points of similarity in physiognomy which cluster John Barrington closer to the Beothuk and away from the Newfoundland Mi’kmaq as an ethnic group are as follows: 1.) delicate, regular, or handsome features; 2.) lighter complexion; 3.) long slightly aquiline nose; and 4.) lithe active build or bone structure. As mentioned in an earlier post I would have to give the biological mother of John Barrington as sister of Kop (mkw@pan “red root”), a Red Indian man born at Red Indian Lake (although Santu says Red (Indian) Pond), the biological father of Santu (Paul) Toney, one of Frank G. Speck’s principal Mc-Beo informants, along with John William Paul of Badger Brook. This cranio-facial evidence at least listed above, combined with other ethnohistoric and emerging archaeological evidence to follow, seems to place or cluster John Barrington closer to the Beo extended kin group, and not to the NL Mc one. While this tidbit of circumstantial evidence in and of itself does not conclusively prove beyond a reasonable doubt that John Barrington was of Beothuk or even mixed Mc-Beo heritage, it conversely does not disprove a connection to this now extinct group, beyond a reasonable doubt, until further evidence, such as future DNA testing, comes to light to categorically disprove that putative conjectural connection, however controversial and debatable. When and/if future DNA studies (SNP autosomal) of living Barrington descendants has or will disprove a direct connection to the Beothuk DNA study of app. 22 samples to be tested, then that supposition, speculation or conjecture can be narrowed down to a statistical probability of not sharing a remote MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor) to this group. Critics who question any distant Beothuk connection for the Barrington family, or laugh off the accuracy and/or credibility of the historical narrative Indian Scrape (sic.) may chide at such shared resemblances in soft tissue physical features between John Barrington and the now extinct Beothuk, insisting that they are nothing more than a chance coincidence or the natural product of mixing between NA (Mi’kmaq) & WE (Western European), a “mixed blood” or metis if you will.

  • White Hair
    July 14, 2014 - 05:05

    The following are 2 excerpts extracted from F. Mowat’s book Bay of Spirits: A True Love Story, the first detailing a first-hand, eye-witness account of an encounter between 2 NL Mi’kmaq from the John family of Conne River, FB-Piper’s Hole, PB (also noted in D. Jackson & G. Penney’s book “On the Country” (1993), and the other Peter Benoit’s discovery of a remote Beo campsite, where some of the last Beo survivors may have died in the interior. The eyewitness account as elicited from Michael John, through Farley Mowat is as follows: Michael himself had never seen a Beothuk but gave a vivid description of a meeting between these now-vanished people and his father and grandfather. His father [Lewis John] had been around ten [1827] when the two Mi’kmaq had encountered a party of Beothuks on the west branch of the Long Harbour River. The Beothuk group included an old man, two or three younger ones (one of them very fat), two or three women and several children [7-9 members]. The two groups were only about a hundred yards apart when they first saw each other, and Michael’s grandfather [Peter John] immediately cocked his muzzle-loader and ordered his son to take cover. The Beothuk seemed equally apprehensive. They had been roasting deer meat on a stick over an open fire but now they hurriedly began breaking camp. Michael remembered minute details of what his father had told him. “They had two bark canoes much high in the middle, not like ours. Bows and arrows, but no guns. Had piles of deer hides, and many bark baskets. They left all them things and even the wigwams and canoes, and hurried off into the woods, only taking what they could grab quick and looking back a lot. I believe they was two were as scared as Grandad as and may dad as they was two of them. After they were gone Grandad looked at all their things, but never took nothing. Said them people would come back for them. After that it was quite some time before nay of our people went near Long Harbour. This seems to be the last occasion where Conne River Mi’kmaq encountered living Beothuk” (Mowat 2009 Bay of Spirits: A True Love Story, 172). Points of note that can be deduced and/or inferred from the John family sighting are obvious and self-explanatory: 1.) the core group of Beothuk survivors up until this time continued to avoid contact with NL Mi’kmaq groups; 2.) Beo material culture and language survived uninfluenced from contact with neighbouring groups, despite external pressures of coerced or voluntary assimilation; 3.) a spirit of mistrust, mutual avoidance and apprehension existed between both groups; and 4.) the eyewitness account calls into question the relationship and/or association of Peter John Sr. to the Beo splinter group of survivors. The latter point is noteworthy despite the fact that Peter John Sr. who guided for the Beothuk Institute (1828) and may have had a Red Indian connection through James John of Piper’s Hole, PB, this splinter group of survivors with whom he encountered still refused to initiate contact with him and his son [Lewis John], although in all probability they indeed recognize Peter John Sr. as a Mountaineer-Mi’kmaq of mixed Red Indian ancestry on the paternal side. This spirit of mistrust may have also come from the group’s knowing or awareness of Peter John Sr.’s marriage to a NL Mc woman Mary Brazil and the marriage of James John before him to a NL Mi’kmaw woman (probably a Joe/Sylvester?), thus adding weight to the observation or deduction that violation of endogamy rules, which forbade marriage to non-Red Indian outsiders, resulted in consequent banishment or exile from the group. This eye-witness account above seems to add further evidence that this splinter group encountered by Peter and Lewis John may have in fact originated from the Red Indian Lake group, as compared to an in situ eastern extended kin group autochthonous to the Piper’s Hole, PB-Clode Sound, BB watershed area with whom the John family and John August would have been more closely allied and/or affiliated with through kinship and friendship. The former splinter group of Beo survivors would have migrated east-southeast into the NL Mc hunting domains of Mi’kma’kik (formerly Beothuk territory ceded to encroaching NL Mc through abandonment), prior to merging with the in situ eastern Beo splinter group, then hiding at Red Indian Pond in the Piper’s Hole watershed area, before splitting off again and back-migrating into the interior after the incident at Shoprock (Huskie Outlook), Indian (Dirty) Scrape (1809-19), PHR, PB. It is also instructive that the encounter noted above at Long Harbour River, FB, like the incident at Shoprock, Indian Scrape previously noted, both occurred within the traditional family hunting domain or territory of the John family of Conne River, FB-Piper’s Hole, PB, the former within the domain of Lewis John Sr. [as per Speck 1922] (presumably inheriting usufructury rights or proprietary ownership from his ancestral predecessors or progenitors, Peter John Sr. and James John, as this area was ceded much later after emigration of Beo kin groups from the area, leaving a vacuum for incoming mixed NL Mc-Mont kin groups with a Beo connection to the older Beo kin group to seize control), and the latter incident [Indian Scrape] on the hunting territory [eastern side of the Tolt, PHR, PB watershed area] of Louis John (of Peter John Jr., of Peter John Sr. & Mary Brazil) & John Barrington [as per Millais (1907) (through a kin relationship with the John family of same said place, notably Piper’s Hole, PB). The same argument can be extended to the place name or toponym Red Indian Pond, PHR, PB, taking its name from a Beo sanctuary or enclave, which also lies within the domain of the John (Battista) family hunting territory noted above. It is obvious that the Beo splinter groups gravitated towards this area for they felt safe within the boundaries of the John family hunting territory with whom they recognized a shared, distant paternal ancestry-lineage and association through friendship. Peter Benoit’s encounter from the same source is as follows: [John Foote]…, “but had heard Peter Benoit, one of the Mi’kmaq elders, tell of finding remnants of the Beothuk birchbark wigwams around the turn of the century near Long Pond, thirty miles northwest of the Head of the Bay. The crumbling tent had contained the skeletons of three adults and a child. The bones of the young one was covered all over with the red ochre they used for to colour most everything they valued. It looked to Peter Benoit like the young one died first, and they done what they could for he afore they died theirselves” (Mowat 2009:143). Both testimonies confirm that not all Beo survivors merged with NL Mc-Mont kin groups at Conne River, FB-Bay St. George’s, or emigrated to Labrador-Greenland?, merging there with local Montagnais and perhaps Inuit-Kablunanngajuit kin groups. Some Beo survivors sought to do it on their own without help of other groups.

  • White Hair
    June 17, 2014 - 17:55

    This will be my final note on the topic of Stock Cove, as there is but little left to say on the topic. I am sure that the research team will have many more discoveries to unearth there in the coming years as well as years of research collating and analyzing the fieldwork test results. It would be interesting to see if the research team will be successful in locating the small burial ground located in the area. Perhaps someday archaeogenetic aDNA analysis of skeletal remains found at this site and other sites, such as the ancient burial ground known to exist at Piper's Hole River, near the sand quarry and bridge, may shed some light on the fate of the Beothuk (and/or other ancient groups), and their relations to prior and.or later immigrant groups. Furthermore, archaeological surveying of sites in the Piper's Hole-Black River watershed areas, outside of Red Indian Pond noted elsewhere throughout various correspondence, may yield interesting results on the migration and subsistence-settlement patterns of other kin groups. Some of these high potential sites which promise to yield positive results include: 1.) Indian Pond and Frenchman's Pond, located in the Black River Mountains, located N of Swift Current, next to Pike Pond and John Pike's Mash; 2.) Mi'kmaw campsites used by both John Barrington and Joe Bernard, as recorded in Howley's (1868) diary fieldnotes; 3.) an undiscovered campsite located near Mile Hill of suspected Beo origin; and, perhaps 4.) Goose Pond (Tqali'j Qospem), located near Southwest Brook, Port Blandford, BB, where Jean Michel camped on his journey from Conne River to Piper's Hole (ca. 1809-1819). In addition, archaeological surveying by remote drone surveillance and/or ground survey by GPR and test pit digs of alleged sites where NL Mc were reported to have encountered Beothuk splinter group survivors immediately prior to their official recorded date of extinction or shortly thereafter, may shed some light on the migration and settlement-subsistence patterns of this group during their hiding in the interior at remote enclaves or sanctuaries. Some of these sites include: 1.) Long Harbour River, FB (14 miles upriver from the mouth on the western branch) where Peter John Sr. & Lewis John Sr. (s/o former?), reportedly met a small band of 9 survivors [I would have this group as a western or core group, who migrated from Red Indian Lake joining the in situ eastern group of survivors then hiding out at Red Indian Pond, migrating out to Nukamkia'ji'jk. In all probability this group of "pure bloods" split off from the Red Indian Pond group of "mixed bloods" after rejecting Jean Michel's terms and conditions of surrender and peace presented at Red Indian Pond and later pleaded at Indian Scrape, opting for freedom, preservation of culture-language-identity, rather than assimilation w/ NL Mc-Mont kin groups, subsquently fleeing or back-grating into the interior. I would have the latter group, that is the Red Indian Pond group that came out at Piper's Hole as opting for assimilation, accepting the conditional terms and conditions of surrender of Saqamaw Jean Michel, as well as safe passage to Labrador via aid and intercession from James John of same said place. Coincidentally, Long Pond noted above emanates from Meta Pond, Eastern Maelpaeg (Mi'lpe'k), also located near the source of the Gisbourne Lake-Dunne's Brook-Sandy Harbour River watershed areas, the known hunting ground or family hunting territory of the Martin family of Indian Cove(Nukamkia'ji'jk), Pike Place, Piper's Hole, PB]; 2.) Burnt Hill (late 1800s) where Setven Joe reportedly met a small group of survivors; and 3.) Long Pond where Peter Benoit reportedly found skeleta of 3 Beothuk who perished in a skin tent or wigwam at a remote campsite there at the turn of the 19 th century. I would have John Barrington of PHR, PB as a child resulting from the capture (whether voluntary or coerced) of a Red Indian woman captured from the incident at Shoprock, Indian Scrape, PHR, PB and taken back to Conne River with Jean Michel (John Mitchell). Although church records are currently lacking my research findings as reconstructed from years of fieldwork suggest that both John Barrington, John William Paul and by extension Santu Toney (nee Paul) are in fact first cousins, with the mother of John Barrington being the sister of Kop. I would also have the mother of John Barrington as the sister of John Richard Pike (Pick/Peck) of Indian Cove, Pike Place, PHR, PB-Eel Brook, Tickle Harbour, TB. I have no comment on the YDNA SNP-STR haplogroup-haplotype assignment of the Barrington patriline of same said place, but would predict it to be of WE origin. I am confident that a future comparative 500,000+ SNP autosomal DNA study of the Barrington-Pike descendants will reveal a chunk of DNA pointing to a common shared ancestry of app. 3-5% biogeographic origins dating back 5 Gens for older testees. If the oral testimony of Kop as related to Santu Toney is indeed correct-which I have no reason to doubt-stating that his grandmother was a white woman rescued from a shipwreck, this would give an estimated blood quantum of app. 75.00% or 3/4 NA for Kop, and by extension the mother of John B., making them so called "mixed bloods" in the eyes of the core RI Lake extended kin-group. This may explain the later split in the group, where the "mixed bloods" were perceived as violating intragroup endogamy taboos by marrying out of the group, being forced to marry NL Mc and later WE Anglo-Irish settlers. Perhaps someday in the future the various families (Barrington, Mitchell, Bernard, John) with a known connection to PHR, PB will be tested in a comparative DNA study (YDNA, autosomal, GLi3 SNP) to determine any degree of relatedness from a MRCA ancestor. As a sidenote, I somehow regret not having the opportunity to work with Dr. Ingeborg Marshall on a critique of the published narrative Indian Scrape, with Dr. John Hewson on an an amended historical-comparative analysis of Beothuk reflexes, with Laurie Maclean on a field survey of Pike Place, Indian Cove & future Red Indian Pond site study, and, finally, a meeting with Saqamaw Mi'sel Joe at a common or neutral ground, such as a conference. I would like to reiterate here with emphasis that the present researcher does not harbour any hard feelings or resentment towards the NL Mc, or by extension the Conne River (Aosamia'jij Miawpukek Mc) and Michel Agathe patriline, despite any misconceptions or misrepresentations perceived otherwise. Such misconceptions stem merely from lack of awareness, understanding and distance, and are grossly exaggerated, being predicated on either fear or miscommunication. Perhaps someday when I am wiser, older and grayer I will have the opportunity to go into the sweat lodge with Saqamaw Mijjl Jo', smoke the pipe, take a smudge, and shake hands, having a laugh in looking back on the drama of it all, so that there would be no lies between us, only laughter, mutual understanding and compassion. Perhaps Saqamaw Joe knows of a medicince man, healer or shaman, who can preside over a small ceremony to bless the land and site where a commemorative plaque will be placed at Stock Cove where his cabin once stood, to honour the life of Gerard James Pike. If and when I do decide to publish a research paper or manuscript on the topic my conscience and ethics prevent me from taking one red cent from the sales or profits from such publications. I would donate all the proceedings or profits from the sale of the publication to the Atlantic Salmon Federation, Nature Conservancy of Canada, a trust fund to finance medical research for gene mapping and therapy, to assist future generations in dealing with and/or overcoming symptoms of GLi3 related conditions, and a trust fund for the protection of Pike Place, Indian Cove (Nukamkia'ji'jk) as a protected site to be preserved for future generations. To sign off I would appreciate it very much if PAO would contact our family in the immediate or distant future with regard to their intentions in conducting future surveys and/or follow-up digs in the area. A simple and short phone call or mailed or e-mailed letter of intention would suffice to honour and respect mutual understanding and inclusiveness between both parties. The family has vowed a commitment to take a non-interference approach of not becoming involved in the process giving adequate distance for the interdisciplinary research teams to conduct and finalize their research, unimpeded and unbothered. Out of respect we would just like to be apprised of developments in the area. I hope that someday the Beothuk Institute would place a commemorative plaque at or near Indian Scrape honouring the life of the Beothuk (Lightning) man killed there, as well as one each for Tom June and John August. You never know maybe someday a shared NL MC-Beo interpretation centre will stand where the house of John Barrington once stood at Indian Cove (L'nuey Wanney/Walney), housing interpretative signs, genealogical charts, photographs, artifacts from the site, and reconstructed Beo-LP-MAI tool kit assemblages (as knapped and crafted byTim Rast). As a final note on the topic, I would like to thank Tim Rast for allowing me to post these commentaries, and to commend him for his outstanding work in reconstructing Beo, Dor Esk & MAI tools-weapons. I am blown away, every day that I visit the site I say "wow, this guy is so cool, where did he come from, this stuff is awesome man"? We need more people like this around, it would be a more interesting and exciting world. Keep up the great work. Namaste.

  • White Hair
    June 06, 2014 - 17:05

    Below is an extract from Deniekes Anthropology Blog referencing the recent aDNA autosomal genome sequencing of 2 Upper Palaelolithic skeleta from Siberia. The interesting finding from a research study is that "14 to 38% of Native American ancestry may originate through gene flow from this ancient population". With reference to the upcoming Beothuk aDNA study this research finding may have interesting, yet controversial, implications. For example it may explain why some Beothuk skeleta and/or reported early-contact eye-witness accounts document "mixed Caucasian-Amerindian/Native American" craniometric and craniofacial features for this now-extinct group, in accord to similar features observed for earlier Palaeoamerican/Palaeoindian skeletal samples (e.g., Kennewick Man, Spirit Cave Man, ...) Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12736 Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans Maanasa Raghavan, Pontus Skoglund et al. The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians1, 2, 3, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal’ta in south-central Siberia9, to an average depth of 1×. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic European hunter-gatherers10, 11, 12, and the Y chromosome of MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and near the root of most Native American lineages5. Similarly, we find autosomal evidence that MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and genetically closely related to modern-day Native Americans, with no close affinity to east Asians. This suggests that populations related to contemporary western Eurasians had a more north-easterly distribution 24,000 years ago than commonly thought. Furthermore, we estimate that 14 to 38% of Native American ancestry may originate through gene flow from this ancient population. This is likely to have occurred after the divergence of Native American ancestors from east Asian ancestors, but before the diversification of Native American populations in the New World. Gene flow from the MA-1 lineage into Native American ancestors could explain why several crania from the First Americans have been reported as bearing morphological characteristics that do not resemble those of east Asians2, 13. Sequencing of another south-central Siberian, Afontova Gora-2 dating to approximately 17,000 years ago14, revealed similar autosomal genetic signatures as MA-1, suggesting that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum. Our findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans. The question for molecular geneticists and/or archeogeneticists conducting the future Beothuk comparative aDNA study: how does one differentiate or filter out recent post-contact Western European 1497-1828 gene flow in the Beo skeleta collection from the NA (Native American-Paleindian) gene flow observed in the Mal'ta-Afontova Gora Siberian samples?

  • White Hair
    May 21, 2014 - 19:14

    This question is for Erwin, Holly and Wolff who have and will conduct ongoing collaborative research at the Stock Cove, TB site. Did any of the research team members to date compare some of the tool kits and/or lithic assemblages excavated at Stock Cove, TB to those recently excavated from the CLAn-03 Piper's Hole, PB site, by MacLean and Hutchings (PAO 2013 Field Report)? Maclean & Hutchings (2013) both argue for a conjectural Beo affinity for some of the lithic assemblages unearthed at this site. Could it be possible that the Stock Cove, TB group and the Piper's Hole, PB group are but one of the same group, with both settlement or occupation sites falling within the seasonal migratory range of their hunting-fishing domain? As the "crow flies" so to speak both areas are nowhere from each other, navigating by coastline at least. It is virtually nowhere from Come-by-Chance River to Piper's Hole, via North Harbour-Baker's Cove-Garden Cove-Black River. The exploratory survey of Guy (1612) seems to point to a connection between both areas, as there existed a path or trail linking both the Truce Sound, TB Beo habitation site and the Passage Harbour, PB one, implying a connection for both groups. Wetzell (2000) alludes to this possibility, although he suggests "a combined Mi'kmaq-Beothuk extended family", based on the existence of some material culture features and what he calls French trade goods. My interpretation of the evidence suggests that the trade goods were more likely to have been of French Basque or Biscayan origin-whether they were acquired through either pilfering or trade may never be known, only speculated on. This would be a more parsimonious explanation or interpretation given that the French Basques had a stronghold (1540-1690) at Plaisance, prior to the Basque Revolt (1690). Evidence for this comes from the high-frequency of Basque pecheurs (listed as "....Pecheurs Que Chaque Habitant Hiverne" & "...Fait Revenir a France" in numerous recensements) hired out under the command of Rochelais and Bordelais Habitans boatowners. Whatever the relationship, if any, between the Beothuk kin group from Stock Cove, TB and the Piper's Hole, PB one, evidence seems to suggest that both Beo groups vacated the area ca. 1630-1640, as the presence of noted Mi'kmaw families, such as Turbis (1695) (Martijn, C. 2003) in outlying island domains of Upper PB, suggest that regional Mi'kmaw kin groups either cohabited the Upper PB area with Beo ones or displaced them following a voluntary or coerced diaspora of the latter. It is possible that some outlier Beothuk kin groups emanating from the TB South-Upper PB groups may have intermarried with incoming Mc migrants, who were attached to the French fort at Plaisance, and the Beo-Mc village of Nukamkia'ji'jk, such as the Turbis family above. It is believed that this Beo extended kin group migrated into the interior merging with in situ groups from the Clode Sound-Gander River groups, extending west. Assuming that James John (b. ca 1760), and by extension the John or Baptiste family of Piper's Hole, PB-Conne Rive, FB, was connected with this eastern kin group as evidence suggests, 3-4 Gens (90-120 Yrs) had already passed from the time that the Stock Cove, TB-Piper's Hole, PB group vacated the area. So no inferences can be made without further genealogical evidence and/or DNA testing among reported descendants given the gaps in data. Further YDNA testing however of French and Spanish Basques may help to demystify or elucidate the high-frequency of haplogroup R1b and its clades among mainland Mi'kmaw testees(and perhaps by extension NL ones). The existence of a Basque cemetary in the Plaisance area dated to ca. 1540, as mentioned in the will of a Basque fisherman, may push back Fench Basque occupation beyond this reported date. It is quite possible that Basque seasonal fishermen, traders and explorers may have made survey forays into Upper PB, such as the Piper's Hole-Black River watershed areas, as early as 1570-90, trading and/or interacting with local Beo kin groups there. Indirect archival evidence suggests that Basque fishermen may have frequented NL as early as 1372, according to taxes paid from Basque whalers in Spain ( index.php/history/basque-at-placentia). Future calibrated radiocarbon dating of both the Stock Cove, TB and PHR, PB sites may help to "bridge the gap" or "narrow the window" of ancient human occupation, giving the researcher and layman reader a more refined appreciation for the value of both occupation sites, and a better understanding of when both sites were occupied and/or abandoned.

  • White Hair
    April 21, 2014 - 12:40

    This final message (3/3) is for Ardy Born With Three Thumbs. While I empathize with your frustrations regarding feedback and/or interest from officials on actualizing a Beothuk repatriation-reburial campaign, "my hands are tied" on this end. As my name, educational-research background and reputation do not carry weight and authority in effecting any positive change, outside that already initiated in the public domain by NL Mi'kmaw Saqamaw Mijjl Jo', I am renedered helpless. I am confident that other people like yourself do in fact share in in the ideal principles of your vision, and would love to see the bone come home to Keta'amishi't for reburial. I am also confident that with due time and patience the process will unfold as it should, and the vision will manifest as a reality. As for me I neither have the time, energy, resources or commitment to give to such a heavy, weighed-down, controversial and emotionally-charged ethnopolitical cause. I have learned a hard-lesson, the difficult and round-about away by getting my ass kicked and being dumb-treated, through the course of my experiences with government authorities, buraeucracies and agencies; that is, politics and ethnoplitics, especially those entailing any discussion of the "now extinct Beothuk" do not make good bed-fellows, and are a topic best left unsaid. As I am a labourer, guide, and unpaid arm-chair researcher with no official ties to any research institute, university, college, or publishing company, my voice will only "fall on deaf ears". However, I strongly encourage you to keep up the fight and to encourage fellow researchers, activists and lobbysists who have or will have a proven connection to the existing and up-coming aDNA test results of Beothuk skeletal collection to lobby and/or petition goverrment officials for this cause. I would also strongly suggest or reccommend that you and/or an entrusted delegate, in lieu of a trusted leader-public relations spokesperson, mentor, or liaison, such as Saqamaw Mijjl Jo' to draft a petition and circulate it to the various NL-NS-NB-PEI-Que. Mc communities, and perhaps thereafter (if the result is not effected) throughout Canadian First Nations communities. With the tens-of-thousands of signatures in hand present this to government departments and elected government representatives, and if action is delayed or thwarted, proceed with a walk-in, demonstration or lobbying through protest-the old-fashioned way that it was done here in NL in the early 80s, as the NL Mi'kmaq know. Like I said in a previous e-mail I am a supporter in spirit, albeit an impartial silent one, observing the progress of events from the outside in. I would sign your petition in a heartbeat and I know many others who would sign the peitition, both First Nations and non-First Nations. There is more support here than you think and can imagine-it will blow your mind. As you already know, all great things start small and grow big, just as a seed when planted will grow into a tree, it must be nurtured, protected and nourished. Trust me, the strength of a wise elder Clan Mother is required to start this process, not the foolish prognostications of a middle-aged man with no connection. As for me I am merely a "wape'k waqey", while I have 2 First Nations ancestors, one paternal (6-7 Gens, of alleged Lab. Mountaineer, or even Pi'tawkewaq ancestry) and the other maternal (3-4 Gens, of the same reported ancestry) my lineage is Western Euopean, primarily Bryhtonic-Goldelic Celtic, Anglo-Saxon- French Gaulish, going back deep in time to Celtiberian, Bell Beaker, adn Anatolian-Sumerian. While I have not taken a deep clade 500,000+ SNP autosomal DNA test through FTDNA or, my Western European genomic contribution is confidently estimated through detailed calculation at approximately 90.0% (the remainder being East-Central Asian, with little to no matches from Siberian-Native American groups). It is time to bring empowerment back to your group through the voice of a mother, that is why I think that you are the right person for the job. As for me I have "washed my hands" of all fringe matters controversial and conspiratorial if you will. After learning my lessons, I now shy away from the gray, murky waters of First Nations ethnopolitics, it is a fight which I am not willing to fight, and it is a fight that many First Nations will feel and think that I am not obliged and entitiled to fight. So who am I to speak of such matters when I have no rightful place or voice to do so, with the blessing of your people. I have learned to be more cautious, patient and accepting, learning to surrender things beyond my control which I cannot change-and this is one topic that I have learned to surrender. With that I have opted for a quiet life of peace and "going with the flow". I no longer have any books, manuscripts, or theses/disertations on the topic of Beothuk ethnography, ethnohistory, linguistics. My copy of J.P. Howley's "The Beothuck or Red Indians" (1915) has given way to books by Thich Nhat Hanh & His Holiness The Dalai Lama, such as the "Art of Living", ". All this knowledge I now carry with me, I carry in my thoughts and memories, sharing them only on rare occasion with a privileged few. Such material attachments merely weight the soul down, for he who travels lightest travels farthest. Someday when I am out in the country at my remote coastal log cabin working on my naomhog (currach) I wish to hear the news that the job has been done, that the Beothuk skeletons have been brought home for reburial. This will bring a smile to my face, and a silent prayer with an offering to the ancestors, to the Sky Father, Mother Earth and to all those earth-bound spirit beings who made this vision a reality. With this final note on the topic I impart to you my blessing of good will, protection and compassion to guide you on your journey to make this happen. I also pray that you will find a way to work with Saqamaw Mijjl Jo' to help this goal become a reality, a man of great vision, strength and wisdom, like yourself. You never know, the Joe family of Conne River (Le Cornu "The Horn") may be more Red Indian (Pi'tawkewaq) than we all think, for that is my prediction that future autosomal DNA tests will confirm! With this note, as a gesture of our shared humanity and a blessign extended, I blow you a breath of life-force your way to give energy and inertia to the spark in the fire that has been lit.

  • White Hair
    April 19, 2014 - 20:01

    This is 2/3 of the last messages on the topic. Here is a novel idea for someone who has the courage to spearhead such an event: why not sponsor a 1-2 day Beothuk Studies research forum or conference to discuss the latest in extant and upcoming research, inviting not only the academic community but the public to attend to share in their knowledge, participate in lectures, seminars, colloquia and poster sessions on various topics? Why not invite private sector and corporate investors to such research studies to raise awareness and perhaps formalize funding opportunities through networking? Why not hold this at MUN Archaeology, Anthropology, or Linguistics, departments which have a proven reputation of research in the field? Why not encourage geneticists and representatives from other international research laboraties to attend so they can gauge the development of the research study and contribute any knowldge to the field. In addition to a specialized scholarly academic forum, it would serve a public relations outreach campaign to stimulate further research in the field that could help archaeologists to secure more funding to protect endangered sites. Its worth a try, isn't it, just think about it? In addition to scholars, honourary distinguished First Nations, Inuit & Metis elders, leaders and guest speakers could attend presiding over the ceremonies. If it brings people together, sharing knowledge and information while promoting a good cause, why not, its all good right? I strongly encourage someome to step forward and initiate the process to get the ball rolling. John Hewson for one would be an excellent spokesperson for this. Not only is he a renown and distinguished scholar and research professor, with a proven reputation in comparative Eastern Algonquian historical linguistics, but an awesome speaker with great people person skills. Then there's Laurie Maclean, Mi'sel Joe, Ingeborg Marshall, Tim Rast, Holly, Wolff, Erwin,....and the list goes on ad nauseum. I personally think there is enough for a 1 day venue.

  • White Hair
    April 19, 2014 - 19:38

    This group of messages (1 of 3) are addressed to saqama'skw Ardy Born With Three Thumbs". I have read in detail your 2 messages below. As such I have given serious thought and consideration to what you have spoken in truth from your heart and spirit. I honour, acknowledge and respect all of your past, present and future decisions and actions on the matter knowing deep from within that they come from a sacred and genuine space of nurturing maternal care and compassion as a rightful descendant for the cause. I sense in your writing a "fiery passion" which I have not heard or felt in many years, as there are but few today who can articulate with such brevity and forcefulness. Your educational background as reflected in your writing style fails to do honour and service to ther reality of your true scholarly intelligence, wisdom and compassion, which are equal to if not surpassing many scholars in the field at the post-graduate and tenured professorial positions of many research institutes-universities, who merely pay lip service to funding agencies and bureaucrats, afraid to "rock the boat" if you will, or go "against the norm", all of this in an effort to secure research funding and promotions from within the established pecking order of the hierachy. As you already know there is no lack of corruption, neoptism, and fratrinization in academic circles. As you also know the truth is far from obvious, it is all not written in history books, it is not all known to our prsent knowldge, it is more complex than we can imagine and it is never what we think it is, despite the presuppositions which our previous knowledge base and experiences impose upon it. It is a truth which reflects new and evolving knowledge which comes to lightover time and through sacrifice. The truth can only be extracted by taking an "outside of the box looking in" approach, an approach which the "scientific method" strives to emulate in the real world" through principle at least, but which fails to replicate or reproduce holistically in reality. Arriving at that truth, however fluidic, dynamic and relative, should be not only interdisciplinary but muli-dimensional, collating knowledge and evidence from many different fields, including, of course, other less-recongnized fringe disiplines such as medical genetics, folklore (oral tradition acounts), spirituality-shamanism, and paranormal phenomena. I also deeply sympathize with your past and on-going efforts to initiate a Beothuk skeletal repatriation and reburial process, via the Beothuk Institute, Government of NL and Ktaqkukewaw Saqamaw Mijjl Jo'. I myself have tried to "spark such a fire" from the outside as a silent supporter, but to no effect. My interpretation of this lack of response is motivated from several observational points derived from my own personal exeperience in catalyzing such a process. Some of these are as follows: i.) lack of interest, or rather apathy and indifference, among certain representatives or spokespeople who can come forward and take a stand on the issue (but for obvious personal reasons cannot or will not); ii.) no-one wants to put their credibility, reputation or job on the line by putting themselves out in the public domain (with the exception of Saqamaw Mijjl Jo's April 2013 standpoint) to take a stand on the issue, despite the emerging and mounting archaeological and genetic eveidence, which seems to give weight and credence to the pre-existing circumstantial evidence, such as ethno-historic, NL Mi'kmaq oral tradition accounts of Beothuk survivors incorporated into NL-NS Mi'kmaw regional extended kin groups; & iii.) funding from private sector sponsors, oil-gas corporated business and provincial government affiliates-subsidiaries is limited or rather not being channelled from the top through the proper funding agencies to help sponsor or subsidize these research projects-both government and corporate business, predicated by "Social Darwinistic" capitalism-free market economy operational-foundational ideals and philosophies which question the viability of financing such "high-risk" research endeavours interpreted as high-risk liabilities with questionable long-term profitability with no "high-return" rewards or profit for the investor. They question "how practical is it", "who does it benefit" and "why should we fiance such a project" for a people known on record to be extinct.Both levels of bureaucracy continue to circulate funding internally, behind closed doors if you will, via a reciprocal feedback loop of "you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours". Its the oldest story in the book: politicians pander and pay lip service to big business which finance the megaprojects (Hibernia, Muskrat Falls, ...) and keep the money flowing in the economy. Anyone who questions or chllenges that "feedback loop" is perceived as a threat and is thrown outside the loop, through the "silent treatment" and starve them out through isolation and deprivation. So it is neither wise nor practical to question the norm here paraphrased periphrastically and euphemistically as "don't bite the hand that feeds you". Any act at questioing the master will be perceived as treason, treachery, or desertion-all acts of rebellion or insurrection from within the ranks and files of the party faithful. Here we are in 2014 and the Beothuk Institute is still fighting to secure funding to complete the comparative DNA study-wow, that is mind blowing. We live in a time now when supercomputers can microprocessor array libraries can perform full-genome wide sequencing of an individuals nuclear DNA in 2-3 hours. What once took 2-3 months, to 2-3 weeks with microprocessors and gen-chips, can now be performed in a mere hours. Yet it has taken a lengthy 10 years or more to go from 2 DNA samples from skeleta sampled in Scotland to the 20 being studied (on hold) through McMaster, MUN Genetics and the Beothuk Institute. The question for the unexpected delays and holds on the research are obvious to any outsider who is neither naive or oblivious. Funding delays are a mere public relations smokescreen or sideshow distraction to interpersonal differences among researchers about sharing of the information in the public domain, licensing and propietary ownership of the test, and implications for ackowedging the existence of a reportedly extinct group of people. So it comes down to "how do we deal with these people", "how do we define them under existing legislation" and "what are the long-term consequences of this recognition". So ultimately, researchers are asking the question "how do we maintain peace and order, while not "upsetting the apple cart" and "destabilizing the status quo". On the one hand we have Northern and Western Europe which is more open to comparative genomics, both genetic genealogy and ancient DNA, openly funding such projects for the altrusitic sharing of knowledge for the philanthropic advancement of mankind, while here in Canada, particularly NL-Lab. there is still a strong "stubbornly persisent illusion" or a strong underground movement against asking any such questions-a movement that has been inherited unconditionally by descendants of Anglo-Irish settlers who bear some of the inherited blame, guilt or shame in somehow being responsible for the actions of their distant ancestors who were deemed as being partly responsible for the extermination or genocide of a distinct and unqiue group of people. It is also founded by a prevailing attitude of provincial NLTA currculum (and textbook)designers and facilitators who pay lip service to provincial bureaucrats and financiers, who continue to allude briefly in lesson-unit plans to the former existence of a people deemed extinct only as a footnote/endnote or suggest for further recommended reading secondary references/resources which are rarely followed through with scholarly debate. For instance, why are resources such as Jackson's "On the Country" and Wetzels "Decolonizing Ktaqmkuk History" not recommended readings in high school curricula-such resources reinforce the credibility of NL Mc oral tradition accounts that some of these people did in fact survive, and tangentially the reasons for extinction or rather diaspora were not only complex, but multitudinous and multifacted being motivated by many factors, such as intragroup-intergroup competition for resources, manifesting as wifestealing & fratricide, hereditary illness, and, finally, Ultimatley, the Beothuk (Pi'tawkewaq) made the final decision to go into hiding, some opting for emigration to Labrador, some opting for integration into Conne River-Bay St. George's communities, with another group of traditionalists stubbornly holding on into the interior vowing never to come out or mix with other groups. That decision was predicated on their own volitional free will and mutually consensual from within. Finally, another factor that is rarely if ever discussed in the research literature is the role that shamanism played in influencing or driving a collective decision to abandon their traditional territories. The fact is that goverment officials who endorse and censor such curriculum content don't want people to ask the essential questions contrary to poplular belief or prevailing stereotypical norms. The reaction to these efforts at effecting a reponse is one directed to and perceived by the activist as giving them the "dumb treatment" or "cold shoulder". They operate under the "modus operandi" lets just pretend that we never read and heard that (with reference to Beothuk survivors) and hopefully with some time they will get the message, shut up and go away. Essentially, it is a sweep it under the rug policy, but all dirty laundry must sometime be put out to wash. So if you take a stand either way here in NL, or heaven forbid even mention their name, you are still regarded in closed circles as a "shit disturber", a "trouble maker", a "pain in the ass" or a "thorn in the side"-as harsh as it sounds, it is true, and truth hurts. I personally think that it was not only a crime committed among the early NL governing authorities and settlers to turn a blind eye to this so called "problem", which doesn't seem to want to go away, but by ignoring the mounting evidence vis a vis the mtDNA and future SNP autosomal DNA evidence among certain NL-NS Mi'kmaq descendants (and perhaps NL Anglo-Irish-French) with a known or attested connection to the Beothuk skeletal collection, we are merely perpetuating that crime in perpetuity and without awareness, through blind ignorance, apathy and indifference the wrong ways of think and doing that goes with that ignorance. This "Social Darwinistic" reasoning was the same mantra or driving force that resulted in the "apparent extinction" of a "nuisance species" such as the Beothuk Wolf (canis lupus beothucus) and the "apparent extinction" of the Beothuk. Old people who spent time "on the country" have known for many years that some NL wolves did in fact survive deep in the interior beyond their official date of extinction-the same argument or reasoning can be said for the Pi'tawkewaq. To date, none of the parties in question who have been implicated in such atrocities against the NL Wolf or the NL Beothuk have stood forward to take some level of responsiblity or to offer condolences in "wiping away the tears" having said sans selfish egotistical pride "On behalf of our ancestors who acted out of ignorance of fear, for any crimes against humanity, beyond our control or cuplability, we are sorry for any hardship, suffering or losses incurred by you or your descendants" To end the above noted preamble, I will contact Ardy Born With Three Thumbs in the near future via e-mail correspondence, but I will need 3-4 weeks to reflect on my thoughts. As an endnote, I include a website address for Oxford RGC-UK Genetics Laboratories (Oxford University Hospitals) as a link providing you with information regarding SNP testing for GLi3 ( find-a-test/search-bylaboratory/laboratory/ oxford-rgc-42/p/). I also include a website address for Svaante Paabos research facility housed at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology: ( Perhaps you can contact him and encourage him to participate in the upcoming DNA studies, as his prodigal expertise in ancient DNA studies would be a valuable asset to the interdisciplinary research team. To sign off, I want you Ardy Born With Three Thumbs to know that you have gained a trusted brother in fealty and spirit in perpetuity to help you and your family to realize its goal, and perhaps the silent and though not unheard goals of other supporters, of initiating the Beothuk skeletal repatriation and reburial process. The chain has now been forged and the bond unbroken until the long-term goals have been relaized. I encourage other descendants with a proven mtDNA connection via HVR I-II + Full mtDNA test results to existing and future samples studies, to initiate a near future petition, demonstration and lobbying movement to expedite the repatriation and reburial process, to bring the skeletal remains back to their resting place where they belong with their loved ones. I encourage you and other Clan Mothers to stand up and do the right thing, in acting out of maternal right and reason. With this I give you my blessing.

  • White Hair
    April 07, 2014 - 14:16

    Here is an extract excerpted from the 2013 PAO Annual Field Report regarding the preliminary results of a survey in the Piper's Hole watershed area: ...Ten new sites were recorded. They consist of five unknown aboriginal, three historical/aboriginal and two historic localities. Piper's Hole-1 (CLAn-03), one of the historic/aboriginal sites, is a possible Beothuk occupation, based on the recovery of a headless wrought iron nail and 33 non-diagnostic lithic artifacts. The four other historic components include the alleged homestead of John Barrington, a prominent late-nineteenth century Mi'kmaq resident.... Nine of the 10 new sites yielded surface finds, four of the localities produced artifacts from test pits. Thirty one of ClAn-03s 33 stone artifacts were found on the surface of a blowout and eroding banks. In total, 49 of 53 lithics found in the survey were collected from the surface of eight sites.... (L. Maclean 2013: 99). With regard to the enigma or question as to why archaeologists have not been successful in finding more Beothuk skeletal remains to date, other than the 22 currently being tested for aDNA, one should ask the question: did the 2 primary Beothuk splinter groups that left the Red Indian Lake area ca. 1823-28, one migrating north to Labrador and the other east-southeast to the Piper's Hole-Black River watersheds, shift their mode of burial practices in response to increasing encroachment in their traditional territory to ensure that their remains would not be appropriated by intruders? It is known that the Newfoundland Mi'kmaq and Quebec Mi'kmaq sank their birch-bark canoes during late fall-early winter for preservation. It is quite possible that other Eastern Algonquian groups as well as NL beothuk practiced this tradition. No one ever asked the question, at least in a public medium anyways: did the splinter groups bury their dead with their sunken canoes in lakes and ponds in the interior of Keta'mshi't (Ktaqmkuk) as an alteration or adaptation to an already pre-existing practice, to evade detection by grave robbers? Perhaps that would be a question best answered in the future by the discipline of underwater archaeology! Another area which has not been explored in more detail but warrants further research is the satellite imaging and topographic mapping, and coastal surveying of caves. It is known that the Beothuk and Dorset Inuit (Tuniit) buried their dead in coastal caves and rock outcrops. For example, it is known that some members of the Martin family from Indian Cove, Piper's Hole-Le Cornu (The Horn) were born in a cave located in the side of a mountain. Source:(

  • White Hair
    April 07, 2014 - 13:18

    I have been following up on some of the comment of "Ardy Born With Three Thumbs". While not questioing the veracity or truthfulness of her genealogical claims to tracing direct descent from Santu, or her reported connections to Demasduit via genetic genealogy testing (mtDNA C1), I must address 2 question of relevance indirectly relating to the topic. First, I am sure that you are aware that there exists reconstructed circumstantial evidence collated from NL Mi'kmaw oral tradition accounts and other ethnographic evidence that both Santu and John William Paul, Speck's informant and guide, were believed to be brother and sister. I am sure that you are also aware that both John William Paul and John Barrington, of Conne River (Breton "Le Cornu" The Horn")-Indian Cove, Piper's Hole-Black River, PB, are known to be related, at least through family oral traditions and reconstructed circumstantial evidence. For example, Alphonse Barrington Jr. of Badger s/o Alphonsus Barrington Sr (b. Black River, PB, b. ca. 1880) reiterated on numerous occasions after citing stories told to him by NL Mi'kmaw elders from the community of Badger, where he grew up that both the Barringtons and Pauls were indeed related. In relating what an elder member of the Paul family told him as a young man, Alphonse stated: "you guys [Barringtons] are related to us [Pauls]. You guys are Mountaineers from Labrador". The question remains was the ethnonym "Mountaineer" noting more than a taboo-deformed term for Beothuk Indian, given the proven close ethnographic, linguistic and, perhaps, genetic affinities of both groups? This Labrador Montagnais-Naskapi connection was attested through not only oral tradition accounts of Beothuk informants that confirmed friendly relations with the Shaudamunk (Innu-aimun Tshiuatin-innuat/k) "Northen People" (cf. Mc Oqwatnukewaq), an origin myth or legend of the Beothuk tracing ancestry and migration from Labrador, as well as the destination of a small surviving splinter group that migrated there ca. 1826-28. A similar argument of such alleged Mountaineer ancestry may also be extended to the John/Baptiste/Sekaquet patriline of Miawpukek-Nukamkia'ji'jk. As an extension to this reasoning, albeit hitherto unproven pending future comparative genetic genealogy testing of the Beothuk skeletal remains and their full genome sequencing & comparison to extant (Mi'kmaq, Innuat, Labridorimiut, Kablunanngajuit) and extinct (Maritime Archaic Indian-Red Paint People, Beothuk, and Tuniit/Dorset Inuit), I am sure that Ms. Landry (Ardy Born With Three Thumbs) is also aware that the phenotypic trait of having multiple thumbs or radial preaxial polydactyly, is a congenital, autosomal-dominant, hereditary condition encoded by a zinc-finger GLi3 frameshift mutation on locus 7p13 (short p arm of chromosome 7 @ position 13, located from base pair 41,960,948-42,237,869). So as to air on the side of caution and not to presuppose, I am also sure that you are aware that this GLi3 mutation also encodes both Greig Cephalopolysyndactyly and Pallister-Hall Syndrome, with their associated embedded clusters of syndromic and non-syndromic symptoms. My question for "Ardy Born With Three Thumbs": has your family been tested for GLi3 frameshift mutation on 7p13, and, if not, will you and/or your family members be willing and able to participate in a future full genome SNP comparative autosomal DNA study to help in identifying this gene and other related gene clusters associated with this and other related medical conditions?

    • Ardy Born With 3 Thumbs
      April 18, 2014 - 02:31

      White Hair, My email is: I would like to further discuss your DNA request in the best interest of medical science for future generations. Do not hesitate to contact me at the above address so I can learn more about your role in this topic. Also, I assume you have seen a copy of my mtDNA certificate to be aware that I was born to a Landry father. Today, my legal name is: Ardy Born With 3 Thumbs as recorded on my property deed, driver's license, utility bills and other documents. Also, I have made application to Misel Joe, Newfoundland Government & Beothuk Institute in the past as to having Demasduit and her husband's skulls repatriated from Scotland to Red Indian Lake for reburial, however, none of the said parties were interested in supporting my request. Furthermore, Chris Aylward from Nfld whom teaches at Ryerson in Ontario visited me in 2012 at my dwelling in Nova Scotia to assist in a dissertation he is preparing on the Beothuk. Professor Aylward was accompanied by a cameraman from Ontario as he is also preparing a film on this matter. Each & every person involved is like a Link, but, when we join hands, we have Forged a Chain === Together we shall make a difference. Hope my Smoke Signal reaches your Camp in Good Spirit! Ardy

    • Ardy Born With 3 Thumbs
      April 18, 2014 - 13:30

      White Hair, Although I am familiar with Amerindian mtDNA ... I am not schooled in science as you appear to be able to quote genetic information at random; similarly, I consider myself well-versed in legislation, statutes & caselaw pertaining to Treaty & Aboriginal Rights of American Indians. It is very important to me as it is the only life I know - my life. I was born 1951, at a time that it was not so easy for Indians. Actually, today it is still not an easy life. I was born in a shack without electricity & water. I was forced to Catholic school as a child. I have a grade 6 education. I still live in a 2x4 shack without a foundation, furnace or septic system. I ate out of dumps as a child. I continue to see more mealtimes than meals. I weigh about 85 lbs. Just think, Canadian Taxpayers share in excess of $20 Billion Dollars a year with the Aboriginal People of Canada. Today, our people should not want for anything. Where are the monies going? I rely on our Treaty Rights for Survival - Hunting & Fishing for bounty provided by the Creator to be used as sustenance for food, personal consumption & ceremonial purpose. Like my Mother from whose Womb I stem and her Mother - my Grandmother - I refuse to live in captivity of a governmental Indian Reservation. I am a Status Indian registered with Indian Affairs Canada on the General List - Atlantic - therefore, I have no affiliation or membership with an INAC First Nations Band. I am MicMac Nation. I never received a Red Cent for being an Indian - I was born Indian. The Land does not belong to the Indian - The Indian belongs to the Land. It is of utmost importance to me that my Beothuk Ancestors remains be returned to Newfoundland to there original burial location and where their son is buried. Then and only then shall my Ancestors have Spiritual Peace. It seems today that others claiming to be "Indian" are only consumed by monies, moreso than a traditional value system of respect for those whom we have a duty owing as they gave their lives for us to be here today. It greatly disturbs me in regards to the Beothuk Institute's failure to support me on this sacred matter. The Institute continue to spend monies un-necessarily when they are aware that I have Beothuk mtDNA, as does my 2 daughters and 2 granddaughters. One would of thought that the Newfoundland Government would have taken my request of re-patriation more seriously as this matter also has great cultural relevance to the history of the province which may have financially boosted & positively affected the tourism industry. Furthermore, without balance there shall be no harmony ... Misel Joe failed me too. Many others fail not only to see the burden on the MicMac Woman's shoulder ... they also Fail to see the Motherlode - the Great Burden in the MicMac Woman's Heart. I am slowing up on the trail. I do not have many seasons walking the land of my Ancestors hunting, fishing & singing our songs in the fading sunset of my Indian Summer years. I remain a Free Indian. This is not talk I choose to speak, but talk that must be spoke. I honor my traditional unpaid role as Clanmother of the Tribe of MicMac. These talks are good medicine for us and healing for me, a MicMac Woman. Thank you for allowing me to share. Submitted in the Spirit & Intent of Treaty - Peace & Friendship. All my respect. Chief Ardy Born With 3 Thumbs - Sagama'sgw TTT (my mark)

    • Ardy Born With 3 Thumbs
      April 18, 2014 - 15:05

      White Hair, I forgot to mention that since I had my DNA tested in 2008 at Family Tree DNA, Houston Texas I agreed to further extensive testing paid by others through laboratories at MeAnd23 & DecodeMe; plus the University of Illinois whom studied my test results said my Amerindian mtDNA was "Special". I even received health reports from my testing. It is amazing the things DNA can tell us about ourselves. Scientific DNA evidence trumps British documents and Oral theories daily in Canadian Courts convicting, exonerating & determinig paternity. I was never a threat to Misel Joe, the "Chief" whom calls himself "Mi'kmaq", but, where is his Pride? I was not an enemy of the Newfoundland government, I even voluteerily issued a Permit to Premier Dunderdale for the dam development at Muskrat Falls. I could be their Strongest Ally - the original Spirit & Intent of the Sacred Covenant Chain of Peace & Friendship Treaties forged Nation to Nation between the Royal Imperial Crown of Great Britain and Her Majesty's Ally, the Tribe of MicMac in the 18th century. The Beothuk Institute which has been in existence for many moons continues to campaign for donations in their longtime search of locating living Beothuk DNA, yet they are aware that I have Beothuk mtDNA. They all forget that MicMac Woman has feelings too. Then I ponder ... if I was a "Man" would my re-patriation request been taken more seriously ... rather than be faced with systemic racism of a bygone colonial paternalistic era ... makes one wonder, doesn't it? Let us hope they all soon see the light. Historically speaking, the MicMac are very forgiving people. Let the healing begin. In closing, I would feel Great Honor to support you in your lifework in regards to the Ancient Ones of the MicMac - The Beothuk. Today is a Good Day! - Smile! - Ardy TTT

  • White Hair
    April 07, 2014 - 12:21

    Will the Beothuk Institute and the PAO (Provincial Archaeology Office) commit to undertaking an arcaeological survey and follow-up dig of the Red Indian Pond site in the Piper's Hole watershed area, where are a small group of Beothuk survivors were hiding out at a remote mountain camp ca. 1809-1819, prior to migrating to the old Mi'kmaw-Pi'tawkewaw campsite of Nukamkia'ji'jk (Indian Cove, Brown's Island), Piper's Hole, PB.? See the 2013 PAO Annual Field Report (Laurie Maclean 2013, Burnside Heritage Foundation) ( for preliminary results of a field survey and follow-up dig in the Nukamkia'ji'jk area.

  • Tony Stuckless
    April 02, 2014 - 14:28

    The Stucklesses of Twillingate always had it passed down from generation to generation that there is a Beothuck connection in our family. The most unique thing about us is our teeth.

  • Jessica Gallant-Hatt
    February 11, 2014 - 01:04

    I'm a status Mi'kmaq and had my mtDNA done last year I belong to hg X2a1 and a dna match to Chief Nonosabusut .

  • Grant Tucker
    November 13, 2013 - 14:52

    There is compelling historical, anecdotal and anatomical evidence that the Beothucks are not extinct. They may be alive and well and living all around us. Those of us who have roots in Hants Harbour consider it very likely that there was a Beothuck female in our ancestry. There is enough evidence to warrant genetic testing.

  • Carmel Whittle
    July 02, 2013 - 23:18

    The Beothuk did survive with great efforts made by the Mi'kmaq People who protected the Beothuk. The government of NL & Lab. needs to support the science community in investing funds to find the truth through DNA testing to uncover that the Beothuk (Pi,taw) People remain with us to this day despite all the efforts made by previous history to deny their existence. Wela'lin (Thank you) to the Mi'kmaq People who also must be cleared of being the blame for the Beothuk's demise. The truth is in the DNA. Many scientist who have researched the genetics of the Beothuk cannot say for certain that the Beothuk exist because they do not have enough genetic comparisons to go by unless the Mi'kmaq of NL & Lab have DNA testing. The government should do the right thing and make sure that those who wish to be tested can be out of respect for the First Nations Peoples of NL & Lab. To restore the Mi'kmaq pride in all Mi'kmaq People that they helped their Beothuk brothers and sisters survive. Scientist need the evidence and they need the cooperation and funds from the government to successfully claim the existence of the Beothuk.

  • Dave
    July 02, 2013 - 21:50

    I remember hearing about 15-20 yrs ago that there was a family in Central NL that had similar dental features/jaw structure of the Beothuck. But nothing ever came of it so I don't know if it is true or not. I would be so pleased to hear the Beothuck aren't all gone. But I'm not sure those with Beothuck ancestry would enjoy the amount of attention they would get. Talk about media frenzy.

  • Joe
    July 02, 2013 - 13:54

    It makes a lot o sense given the events surrounding our Mi'kmaq ancestry. It's understandable. It goes without say, "Out of sight; out of mind" There are probably many other ancestry groups that are alive and well! Wouldn't it be interesting to find out that we all have Indian blood flowing through our veins, except for Stephen Harper of course. I would be ashamed to know that he has Indian blood! How ironic would that be?

  • Cindy Murray
    April 29, 2013 - 16:45

    I hope the Beothuk Institute is soon successful in raising the remaining financial resources necessary to continue with their important DNA testing to find a genetic link between our beloved Beothuk and Mi'kmaq people. DNA testing should also be done to find a genetic link between the Beothuk and Europeon and French settlers as well because if the genetic link survived with just one known female brought to Iceland by the Vikings, it stands to reason that there could very well be much more to be discovered right here in Newfoundland!! Contact with Europeon or French settlers meant almost certain death for the Beothuk, so they would have likely gone to great lengths to keep their native origin secret. As far as I understand it, their skin was lighter than most native groups, so removing the red ocher from their bodies would have perhaps made it easier for them to blend in with Europeon and French settlers. I read at least one comment on-line from a Newfoundlander who claimed that his ancestor was of Beothuk origin.

  • Gerry Samms
    April 19, 2013 - 10:27

    I am excited to think that the Beothuck were not driven to extinction.. my family has great evidence of native blood, I would be pleased to undergo DNA testing if it meant proving a point.